They are more and more often found on city streets – small jack russell terriers that are easy to take under the arm are becoming popular family dogs, despite the strong instinct of pursuit. The alert and perceptive Jack Russell Terrier is a good watchman, although sometimes he is too noisy.
Jack Russell terrier is a dog of great temperament and mischievous, cheerful disposition. Although he is usually bursting with energy, he can also show calmness and composure, thanks to which he is not a troublesome household member. It easily adapts to any conditions, so you can take it anywhere.
JRT likes the company of people and is extremely attached to the owner – he would not prefer to leave him a step. It is not recommended for families with small children, because it does not tolerate rough treatment and is not very careful when playing. For this, he will be perfect as a friend of eight or ten years old.
Alert and perceptive, he is a good watchman. Sometimes it is too noisy, especially if it shares a house with dogs of similar temperament. Due to the large hunting instincts, we advise against keeping it with small pets. Most jack Russell terriers will accept a cat, but a rabbit or a hamster can fall prey to them. Also on walks, you have to be careful that our pet does not go after the bird or fast-moving object.
Although small in size, JRT is confident and brave beyond measure. It happens that it can be feisty with foreign dogs. Jack Russell Terrier is not a sandwich and is not suitable for lazy people. Always on the move, he needs regular walks and some kind of activity. Bored and left alone can destroy things or dig pits in the garden. He loves to retrieve, he swims eagerly, he can also accompany his owner in jogging.
Although due to the short limbs it is not created for a long run by the bike, you do not have to give up riding together – you can easily get used to … traveling in a special basket attached to the handlebar. JRT is suitable even for a small apartment, provided that the owner will not leave him alone for the whole day, provide him with entertainment and sufficient traffic.
Jack Russell Terriers have been bred to fox foxes and badgers. Their high-legged cousins - today’s parson russell terriers – were used to chase and drive animals into pits, while JRTs were often transported to the hunting place in a special bag strapped to the saddle and released straight into the burrow.
Dogs of this breed were used to exterminate rodents in the villages, as well as in the commercial and port districts of the 19th and 20th century cities. Specialized teams fighting rats operated in England – two or three small terriers were able to kill even several dozen pests within an hour.
Today’s JRT is primarily companion dogs. They are also – according to their original purpose – kept in stables, where they regulate the number of rodents, and also sporadically used in hunting. They work as dogs searching for drugs and dangerous substances.
They can take part in burial competitions and play many dog sports – agility, flyball, frisbee, dancing with a dog, obedience. Due to good contact with people and cheerful disposition, they are suitable for dogotherapy. The breed undergoes work tests – a working diploma is required to obtain the title of interchampion (international beauty champion).
Training and education
Jack Russell Terrier is very intelligent, learns quickly, but can be stubborn. It requires considerable training skills from the owner, iron consistency and appropriate motivation. Most representatives of this breed are greedy – for their favorite treat they can learn much more than other dogs. However, they get bored quite quickly and are unable to sit still long, which is why short lessons need to be repeated several times a day.
JRT is a terrier characterized by the sharpness and independence typical of this group of dogs. He can quickly subordinate the owner if he is allowed to. Raising a puppy must start from the first moments in his new home – he should be treated warmly but firmly.
Do not tolerate biting on the arms or legs. He must be properly socialized – he should have as many contacts as possible with people, different situations and other dogs; Dog nursery school classes are a good solution.
Who is this race for?
Jack Russell Terrier is unlikely to be suitable for a novice and a household member. The owner should have experience in raising dogs, must be consistent and lead an active lifestyle.
Advantages and disadvantages
stubborn and independent
it can be noisy
shows a strong instinct for the pursuit
feisty of strange dogs
cheerful and attached to the owner
a good friend for older children
easy to care for
active, it works in dog sports
inexpensive to maintain
suitable for a small apartment
Jack Russell Terrier is a relatively healthy breed. His knee dislocation may occur – a condition typical for most small dogs – and progressive retinal atrophy (for breeding dogs, testing for both conditions is recommended). Hip dysplasia and allergies of unknown origin are very rare. A hearing test is used for individuals with few colored markings.
A dog of this breed may have a tendency to build up tartar, which is why it is worth getting a puppy to get used to brushing their teeth; you can also give him special cleaning biscuits and chews.
Jack Russell Terrier is rather resistant and durable. Rough-haired and broken-haired dogs are better suited to low temperatures. Terriers with short hair and little undercoat can be more sensitive to frost and moisture, but usually, there is no need to wear clothes.
Jack is rarely picky and usually has an excellent appetite, so be careful not to gain weight. For an adult dog, it’s best to choose a high-grade medium-protein food for small breeds. If our pet does sports, he can get food for active dogs with a higher content of protein and fat.
When feeding ready-made foods, you do not need to give calcium and vitamin preparations. However, you can add to your meals linseed, small amounts of vegetable oil or agents containing biotin and unsaturated fatty acids – they improve skin condition and stimulate hair growth. A small terrier can also be fed with self-prepared food, but then it needs to be supplemented with appropriate calcium and vitamin preparations.
Jack Russell Terrier occurs in three types of coat – short, rough and wiry (broken). The short-haired dog molts quite intensively twice a year (in spring and autumn), and its fur easily sticks into rugs and upholstery. You need to brush it two or three times a week with a hard bristle brush or a rubber glove. In summer and winter, the coat falls out moderately, so brushing can be limited to one per week.
Rough and wire-like hair – which is an intermediate form between short and rough – requires trimming once every 1-3 months, depending on its length and growth rate. For care, blunt trimmers are used (the hair can also be plucked with the fingers) and dense metal combs. Trimming requires some experience, so it’s better to get a specialist’s help at first.
During molting, the lush undercoat falls out, which is however much easier to clean than a short, hard coat. When necessary, we bathe Jack Russell Terrier in shampoo for short-haired or rough-haired dogs – depending on the type of coat. You can use cosmetics for white ointment, but only for animals with little colored meanings. Some growers use dry shampoos.
The Jack Russell Terrier with a short coat does not require any special preparation for the exhibition. Only dogs with slightly longer hair may need a slight tail shape correction, which involves cutting the protruding hair on the underside of the tail. The other two varieties require the aforementioned trimming. However, it cannot change the appearance of the coat, it should only emphasize the silhouette of the dog. The terrier also needs to get used to standing calmly on the table where the judges set up small breeds to assess their appearance.
The terrier’s first walks can be done in braces, but as soon as possible he should get used to the usual collar – leather or with tape. Despite the small height, it is quite a strong dog, therefore the leash must be made of solid material – choosing an automatic one, it is better to overstate the dog’s weight a bit.
A puppy used to spending a few hours alone will not cause much damage if he has toys – preferably a few that are worth replacing (hide) every few days. Congas, where you can put treats and items made of cast rubber (hard to chew), work well. However, squeaking toys are not recommended because they can excite the dog too much.
Terriers are a group of hunting dogs bred for hunting in burrows. Their homeland is probably the British Isles, and most of the breeds currently known have a common ancestor, which was the popular short or wirehaired stable pinscher.
From the end of the 16th century, descriptions of terrier dogs appear, both long and short-legged. The larger ones were used for harassment, and the smaller ones for hunting out animals and strangling pests – many modern breeds of small terriers come from them, including the ones described.
The creator of the parson jack russell terrier (the breed existed under this name until 2000) was pastor Iddesleigh John Russell (nicknamed Jack by friends). As an avid hunter, he had a pack of fox terriers. However, his goal was to breed a terrier for fox hunting – it was supposed to be a small, fast and durable dog, with legs long enough to keep up with the rider, but at the same time small enough to fit in the den.
In 1819, while studying at Oxford, John Russell bought a rough-haired, white bitch with patches on his head from the local dairy – the embodiment of his dream of a perfect little terrier. He called her Trump and started his breeding with her. Over the years he has made many crosses with other breeds – such as fox terriers, beagles, Norfolk and Norwich terriers and perhaps also other small English terriers.
In 1990, the International Kennel Club approved the pattern of Parson Jack Russell Terrier. He allowed the existence of two varieties within one breed – short-legged with a height of about 27-cm (today’s jack) and high-legged with a height of up to 37-cm (today’s parson). In addition, Jacek is allowed two ways of wearing ears: “button” (button-shaped) – broken slightly above the skull line, and “drop” – broken on the skull line.
Parson should have ears falling forward and close to the skull. Jack Russell Terrier ointment is an advantage of white with small colored markings – patches can also be found on the torso. In parsons, colored markings should only appear on the head and base of the tail.
Until the recognition of the Jack Russell Terrier (JRT) as a separate breed, both varieties were presented together at shows and crossed in breeding. Both in Great Britain and on the European continent, parson type dogs were preferred – his lower cousin was much less popular.
In October 2000, a separate pattern was published for the Jack Russell Terrier, which was adopted by the FCI in June 2001. The standard was created in Australia and it was the country that was applying for recognition of the new breed.
Jack Russell Terrier – Group III FCI, Section 2, Model No. 345
Country of origin: Great Britain
Size: ideal height at the withers: 25-30 cm
Coat: smooth, rough or wire-like (broken) coat, resistant to weather conditions
Color: white (must dominate the color) with black and tan, black or red markings – from light fawn to chestnut
Maturity: 12-18 months
Lifespan: 14-16 years
Weather resistance: medium
Jack Russell Terrier is one of the most-used dog breeds in movies. Her film “The Mask” brought her great popularity.
The Jack Russell Terrier Tillamoon Cheddar bitch is one of the most famous dog painters in the world. Exhibitions of her works took place, among others in the USA, Belgium, the Netherlands or Bermuda. Some of her paintings were sold for as little as $ 2,000.
The race has stolen the hearts of many stars. JRT owners were, among others Mariah Carrey, Paul McCartney and Prince Karol.